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ALMANAH FLACARA

Istoria cozonacului

December 10th, 2010, com 38 comentarii

Deşi, culinar vorbind, nu suntem atât de renu­miţi ca alte naţii, avem, totuşi, cu ce ne lăuda.

Printre motive, cozonacii româneşti, nelipsiţi de pe mesele de sărbătoare.

Cozonacul este o prăjitură tradiţională românească, dar în egală măsură şi un desert bulgăresc (kozunak), sau un produs de patiserie italiană, numit „panettone”.

Indiferent pe ce meridian al lumii este băgat la cuptor, aroma cozonacului se simte mai ales de Paşte şi de Crăciun. În ceea ce priveşte cozonacul românesc, caracte­ristică este imensa varietate de reţete. Fiecare regiune istorică are o reţetă, după cum si fieca­re familie are una, transmisă din generaţie în generaţie. Din punct de vedere al formei, cozonacii pot fi drepţi sau rotunzi, simpli sau împletiţi. Din punct de vedere al umpluturii, deosebim cozo­naci simpli sau umpluţi cu nucă, mac, fructe uscate, sau amestecuri. De Paşte, tradiţio­nal este cozonacul umplut cu brânză (asa-numita pască). În Moldova sunt specifici cozo­nacii rotunzi si înalţi (numiţi babe), neumpluţi, a căror com­poziţie conţine până la 20 de ouă, unt, coji rase de lămâie sau/si portocale si stafide. În Ardeal se pregătesc mai ales cozonacii cu mac şi o variantă cu influenţe germane, cu zahăr ars, mult unt si nucă tocată mare.

Cozonacul este, de fapt, o super-pâine, în care se adau­gă, pe lângă mirodenii şi lapte, ouă, nucă, stafide şi alte umpluturi. Şi cum nici pâinea, nici cozonacul nu se pot face fără drojdie, înainte de apariţia cozonacului omul a trebuit să descopere drojdia şi aluatul dospit. Preparate din făină de cereale amestecate cu apă şi apoi coapte au fost rea­lizate încă din epoca neolitică, dar de aici şi până la comple­xitatea cozonacului de azi se află mai mult de 10.000 de ani de istorie… culinară. Secretul stă în drojdia de bere, fără de care nu se poate vorbi despre aluat dospit. Drojdia este unul dintre cele mai vechi microor­ganisme pe care omul le-a folosit în alimentaţie. Arheo­logii au descoperit printre rui­nele din Egipt, cuptoare pen­tru copt, precum şi desene făcute acum cel puţin 4.000 de ani, care dovedesc că egiptenii ştiau să facă pâine dospită şi bere.

Este foarte posibil ca pri­mul cozonac să fi fost făcut în Egiptul antic. Probabil că era îndulcit cu miere şi umplut cu seminţe. Grecii au preluat de la egipteni şi interesul pentru bucătătărie, şi drojdia de bere, şi aluaturile dospite. Cu certi-tudine grecii mâncau cozonac. Îl făceau cu miere, stafide şi nucă. Cozonacul grecesc se numeşte plakous. Drojdia şi implicit pâinea dospită şi cozonacul au fost „furate” de la greci de către romani, care au adăugat în cozonac fructe uscate. La început au fost doar două varietăţi numite libumşi placenta, de la cea din urmă venind termenul pasca din prezent. Libum era un cozo­nac mic, folosit ca ofrandă adusă zeilor. Mai târziu au apărut variante consumate şi de oameni, nu doar de… zei. Placenta, mult mai elaborat, este un cozonac cu brânză, cu stafide şi alune, care era servit împreună cu un vin dulce. Deşi au luat drojdia de-a gata de la greci şi de la egipteni, romanii au fost cei care au descoperit toate posibilităţile pe care le oferă drojdia adău­gată aluaturilor, devenind ast­fel adevăraţii maeştri patiseri. În Evul Mediu brutarii euro­peni făceau foarte des cozo­naci cu fructe uscate, pentru că ţineau mai mult timp.

În Marea Britanie, prima reţetă de cozonac apare într-o carte de bucate în 1718, cu recoman­darea de a fi copt în forme lungi şi înguste, recomandare care a rămas valabilă şi în zile­le noastre. Francezii, cei care în secolul al XIX- lea au adău­gat al treilea fel la masă, „desertul”, sunt cei care au pus în valoare cozonacul, mai mult decât alţii.

  • Cozonacul se pregăteşte mereu într-un loc cald, ferit de curen]i reci de aer

  • Ingredientele tre­buie să fie la tempe­ratura camerei atunci când se prepară alu­atul, iar vasul folosit trebuie să fie cald • Drojdia nu trebuie opărită, ci preparată cu lapte căldu] • Aluatul reuşit trebuie să fie lipicios (dar fără să rămână lipit de mâini), elastic şi de consisten]a lobului urechii. Cu cât frămân]i mai mult, cu atât este mai bun • După ce pui cozona­cul la copt, nu umbla în cuptor în primele 20 de minute.

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