CULTURA MASS-MEDIA

Arta stradală

August 10th, 2008, com 2 comentarii

Unde se termină „mâzgălitul pereţilor publici“ şi începe arta stradală? Destul de greu de stabilit, în parte din cauza lipsei criticului de artă, dar şi datorită refuzului nostru de a primi un mesaj în forma sa primară, fără a fi cenzurat sau decodificat înainte, fără a fi atestat ca formă de artă.

Aprobăm fără nici o reţinere autenticitatea şi valoarea unei opere de artă care ni se dă ca atare, ea fiind destinată celor „iniţiaţi“, dar respingem ceea ce e făcut de „noi“ pentru „noi“, deoarece lipseşte cel împuternicit să ne stabilească limitele artei. Prin acest „noi“ mă refer la un om obişnuit care se diferenţiază de restul doar prin alegerea sa de a-şi transmite mesajul într-un mod neconvenţional, dar şi pe cel căruia îi este destinat acest mesaj. Mesaj care se pierde undeva pe drum, în preconcepţiile noastre. Poate că istoria acestei forme de mesaj şi al evoluţiei sale până la arta stradală ar incita şi ne-ar face ca atunci când trecem chiar şi pe lângă o lozincă antisistem scrisă în grabă în colţul unui zid să-i găsim rezonanţa în noi, căci nu cred că sunt prea mulţi cei mulţumiţi de sistem.


Graffiti-ul are aceeaşi vârstă cu arta, aceasta începând cu pictura rupestră, formă foarte apropiată de arta stradală. Graffiti, având ca scop protestul, a fost descoperit pe zidurile oraşului Pompeii, în Roma şi chiar în Irlanda, reprezentând caricaturi ale politicienilor, mesaje politice, citate din literatură şi chiar declaraţii de dragoste, fiind caracterizate de o latină vulgară şi violentă, specifică vieţii de pe stradă. Forma cunoscută astăzi a apărut la începutul anilor ’70 în New York, ea fiind adoptată în scurt timp de cultura rap, apărută în aceeaşi perioadă în sudul Bronxului. În 1971 publicaţia New York Times realizează un material despre această mişcare, punând problema apartenenţei ei în cadrul artelor plastice. În 1973 se pun bazele Uniunii Artiştilor de Graffiti, având ca scop promovarea artei stradale şi aducerea acesteia în galeriile de artă. Primul artist ce a adus graffiti-ul la nivelul de artă a fost Jean-Michel Basquiat, lucrările sale fiind realizate iniţial pe zidurile şi metrourile New York-ului. În anii ’80 acesta devine foarte popular şi începe să expună în galeriile newyorkeze, apoi în toată lumea. Din lucrările sale nelipsind craniile şi câinii, acestea devin simboluri ale artei sale. Un alt pictor ce a debutat ca „artist al străzii“ este Keith Hring, care cucereşte foarte repede lumea cu figurinele sale de oameni şi animale dansând.

În România, arta stradală a apărut în jurul anului 2000, odată cu popularizarea curentului muzical hip-hop. Grupurile organizate de artă stradală şi-au făcut apariţia la noi în ţară în urmă cu doar câţiva ani, însă, spre deosebire de alte ţări, încă se refuză susţinerea şi exploatarea potenţialului artistic al acestora, graffiti-ul fiind considerat vandalism, iar cei care „vandalizează“ fiind sancţionaţi.

Ideea care ne scapă e că odată cu epuizarea mijloacelor de exprimare plastică, în mod natural, Arta îşi caută noi teritorii pe care se poate dezvolta, având doar două alternative: revenirea la forma sa iniţială şi exploatarea celor oferite de noile tehnologii. Prin urmare, formele adoptate de artă sunt arta stradală şi cea digitală, cea din urmă fiind mai uşor acceptată datorită nevoii noastre zilnice de tehnologie computerizată. Însă arta digitală se depărtează de Artă odată cu scopul său comercial şi tehnic, cu scopul de a se vinde.

foto Octavian Tibăr şi Sebastian Paul Guraliuc

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Comentarii

  1. Very Nice Seller! thank-you!

  2. Get your online degree!…

    Left you a trackback for your readers to help them get an online degree….

Comenteaza

 

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pixelEvents(){var e;return null===(e=this.config)||void 0===e?void 0:e.pixel_events}injectPixel(){this.injectedAt||(this.injectedAt=new Date,this.inject(),this.watch())}inject(){const e=document.createElement("script");e.text=this.script,document.head.appendChild(e)}isTimedOut(){return+new Date>=+this.timeoutAt}timeoutAfter(){return this.timeoutSeconds}selectPixelEvent(e){if(Array.isArray(this.pixelEvents))return this.pixelEvents.find((t=>"term-view"===t.trigger&&"visit"===e||(!(!["term-click","ad-view"].includes(t.trigger)||"ctr"!==e)||"ad-click"===t.trigger&&"click"===e)))}}class Facebook extends Provider{get script(){return`!function(f,b,e,v,n,t,s){if(f.fbq)return;n=f.fbq=function(){n.callMethod?n.callMethod.apply(n,arguments):n.queue.push(arguments)};if(!f._fbq)f._fbq=n;n.push=n;n.loaded=!0;n.version='2.0';n.queue=[];t=b.createElement(e);t.async=!0;t.src=v;s=b.getElementsByTagName(e)[0];s.parentNode.insertBefore(t,s)}(window, document,'script','https://connect.facebook.net/en_US/fbevents.js');fbq('init', '${this.identifier}');`}onPixelEvent(e){const t=this.selectPixelEvent(e);t&&(t.custom?window.fbq("trackCustom",t.event):window.fbq("track",t.event))}isLoaded(){return!!window.fbq}}class Outbrain extends Provider{get script(){return`!function(_window, _document) {var OB_ADV_ID = '${this.identifier}';if (_window.obApi) {var toArray = function(object) {return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === '[object Array]' ? object : [object];};_window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));return;}var api = _window.obApi = function() {api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);};api.version = '1.1';api.loaded = true;api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;api.queue = [];var tag = _document.createElement('script');tag.async = true;tag.src = '//amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js';tag.type = 'text/javascript';var script = _document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0];script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);}(window, document);`}onPixelEvent(e){const t=this.selectPixelEvent(e);t&&window.obApi("track",t.event)}isLoaded(){return!!window.obApi}}class Revcontent extends Provider{get script(){return""}inject(){const e=document.createElement("script");e.src="https://assets.revcontent.com/master/rev.js",document.head.appendChild(e)}onPixelEvent(e){const t=this.selectPixelEvent(e);t&&window.rev("event",t.event)}isLoaded(){return!!window.rev}}class Taboola extends Provider{get script(){return"window._tfa = window._tfa || [];!function (t, f, a, x) {if (!document.getElementById(x)) {t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);}}(document.createElement('script'),document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0],'//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1451879/tfa.js','tb_tfa_script');"}onPixelEvent(e){const t=this.selectPixelEvent(e);t&&window._tfa.push({notify:"event",name:t.event,id:t.pixel_id})}isLoaded(){return Array.isArray(window._tfa)}}class Tiktok extends Provider{constructor(e,t){super(e),this.useAltTikTokEventsForAdsPlatformUser=t}get script(){return`!function (w, d, t) {w.TiktokAnalyticsObject=t;var ttq=w[t]=w[t]||[];ttq.methods=["page","track","identify","instances","debug","on","off","once","ready","alias","group","enableCookie","disableCookie"],ttq.setAndDefer=function(t,e){t[e]=function(){t.push([e].concat(Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments,0)))}};for(var i=0;i{const{detail:{type:t}}=e;switch(t){case"visit":case"ctr":case"click":this.providers.forEach((e=>e.handlePixelEvent(t)))}},this.providers=[new Facebook(e.facebook),new Tiktok(e.tiktok,e.useAltTikTokEventsForAdsPlatformUser),new Taboola(e.taboola),new Revcontent(e.revcontent),new Outbrain(e.outbrain)]}listenForEvents(){document.addEventListener("pixel",(e=>{this.onPixelEvent(e)}));window.onmessage=e=>{const{origin:t,data:n}=e;ALLOWED_ORIGINS.includes(t)&&(null==n?void 0:n.startsWith(MESSAGE_PREFIX))&&window.location.search.startsWith(ADS_PARAM$1)&&document.dispatchEvent(new CustomEvent("pixel",{detail:{type:"click"}}))}}dispatchEvent(e){document.dispatchEvent(new CustomEvent("pixel",{detail:e}))}}class URLSearchParamsPolyfill{constructor(e){this.params={},e&&e.slice(1).split("&").forEach((e=>{const[t,n]=e.split("=").map(decodeURIComponent);this.params[t]=n}))}has(e){return Object.keys(this.params).includes(e)}append(e,t){this.params[e]=t}toString(){return Object.keys(this.params).map((e=>`${encodeURIComponent(e)}=${encodeURIComponent(this.params[e])}`)).join("&")}}const parse=()=>"function"==typeof window.URLSearchParams?new URLSearchParams(window.location.search):new URLSearchParamsPolyfill(window.location.search);var State;!function(e){e[e.Pending=0]="Pending",e[e.Loaded=1]="Loaded",e[e.Failure=2]="Failure",e[e.TimedOut=3]="TimedOut",e[e.Errored=4]="Errored"}(State||(State={}));const CAF_SCRIPT_SRC="https://www.google.com/adsense/domains/caf.js",TIMEOUT_SCRIPTS=Number(GOOGLE_CAF_TIMEOUT_SCRIPTS),TIMEOUT_CALLBACKS=Number(GOOGLE_CAF_TIMEOUT_CALLBACKS);class StateMachine{constructor(){this.state=State.Pending}transitionTo(e){this.state=e}transitionFromPendingTo(e){this.done||(this.state=e)}get loaded(){return this.state===State.Loaded}get timedOut(){return this.state===State.TimedOut}get done(){return this.state!==State.Pending}}class Ads{constructor(e,t){this.state={script:new StateMachine,blocks:new StateMachine},this.blocksLoaded=[],this.injectScriptTags=()=>__awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function*(){return new Promise((e=>{const t=document.createElement("script");t.type="text/javascript",t.src=CAF_SCRIPT_SRC,t.addEventListener("load",(()=>e(!0))),t.addEventListener("error",(()=>e(!1))),document.body.appendChild(t),TIMEOUT_SCRIPTS>0&&setTimeout((()=>e(!1)),TIMEOUT_SCRIPTS)}))})),this.onPageLoaded=(e,t)=>{if(this.pageLoaded={requestAccepted:e,status:t},this.state.script.done)return;const n=null==t?void 0:t.error_code;n?(this.state.script.transitionTo(State.Failure),this.failureReason=`caf_pageloaderror_${n}`):this.state.script.transitionTo(State.Loaded)},this.onBlockLoaded=(e,t,n,i)=>{this.blocksLoaded.push({containerName:e,adsLoaded:t,isExperimentVariant:n,callbackOptions:i}),this.state.blocks.done||(t?this.state.blocks.transitionTo(State.Loaded):this.blocksLoaded.length>=this.blocks.length&&(this.state.blocks.transitionTo(State.Failure),this.failureReason=`caf_adloadfail_${e}`))},this.onTimeout=()=>{this.state.script.transitionFromPendingTo(State.TimedOut),this.state.blocks.transitionFromPendingTo(State.TimedOut)},this.blocks=e,this.options=t}get loaded(){return this.state.script.loaded&&!this.blocksLoaded.map((e=>e.adsLoaded)).includes(!1)}waitForBlocks(){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function*(){return new Promise((e=>{const t=()=>{const n=performance.now();if(this.state.blocks.done)return this.cafLoadTime=Math.round(n-this.cafStartTime),void e();const i=this.blocksLoaded.map((e=>e.adsLoaded));i.includes(!1)||i.length>=this.blocks.length?e():setTimeout(t,50)};t()}))}))}inject(){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function*(){try{const e=yield this.injectScriptTags();return this.cafStartTime=performance.now(),e&&void 0!==window.google?(new window.google.ads.domains.Caf(Object.assign(Object.assign({},this.options),{pageLoadedCallback:this.onPageLoaded,adLoadedCallback:this.onBlockLoaded}),...this.blocks),TIMEOUT_CALLBACKS>0&&setTimeout(this.onTimeout,TIMEOUT_CALLBACKS),yield new Promise((e=>{const t=()=>{this.state.script.done?e():setTimeout(t,10)};t()}))):void this.state.script.transitionTo(State.Failure)}catch(e){return void(this.error=e.toString())}}))}toCallbacks(){return{adLoadedCallback:this.blocksLoaded.slice(-1)[0],pageLoadedCallback:this.pageLoaded,cafTimedOut:this.state.script.timedOut||this.state.blocks.timedOut,cafLoadedMs:this.cafLoadTime,googleAdsFailure:!!this.failureReason}}toContext(){const e={cafScriptWasLoaded:this.state.script.loaded,cafScriptLoadTime:this.cafLoadTime,callbacks:this.toCallbacks};return this.error&&(e.js_error={message:this.error}),this.state.script.loaded||(e.zeroclick={reason:"googleAdsFailure"}),e}mockFailedState(){this.state.blocks.transitionTo(State.Failure),this.state.script.transitionTo(State.Failure)}}class TagManager{constructor(e){this.injected=!1,this.identifier=e}inject(){if(this.injected)return;if(!this.identifier)return;if("TEST"===this.identifier)return;const e=document.createElement("script");e.setAttribute("src",`https://www.googletagmanager.com/gtag/js?id=${this.identifier}`),document.head.appendChild(e),this.track(),this.injected=!0}track(){this.push("js",new Date),this.push("config",this.identifier)}push(e,t){window.dataLayer||(window.dataLayer=[]),window.dataLayer.push(arguments)}}const ADS_PARAM="?caf",ADS_TRACKING_URL="_tr",BLOCKS_TYPE="ads",BLOCKS_CONTAINER="rs",KNOWN_CAF_PARAMS=["caf","query","afdToken","pcsa","nb","nm","nx","ny","is","clkt"];class Google{static build({pageOptions:e,preferredLanguage:t,blocks:n,googleAnalytics:i,reportableChannel:s},a,o){let r={};e&&(r=Object.assign({},e),r.hl||(r.hl=t),s&&(r.channel=r.channel.concat(`,pid-bodis-gcontrol${s}`)));let d=null==e?void 0:e.resultsPageBaseUrl;return new Google(a.uuid,n,r,i,d)}constructor(e,t,n,i,s){this._blocks=t,this._pageOptions=n,this.uuid=e,this.baseURL=s,this.ads=new Ads(this.blocks,this.pageOptions),this.tagManager=new TagManager(i)}injectTagManager(){this.tagManager.inject()}injectAds(){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function*(){yield this.ads.inject()}))}waitForBlocks(){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function*(){return this.ads.waitForBlocks()}))}get blocks(){return(this._blocks||[]).filter((e=>this.wantsToServeAds?e.type===BLOCKS_TYPE:e.container===BLOCKS_CONTAINER)).map((e=>{const t=parse(),n=Object.assign({},e);return n.resultsPageBaseUrl=`${this.baseURL}${ADS_PARAM}&${t.toString()}`,this.wantsToServeAds&&(t.append("click","true"),t.append("session",this.uuid),n.clicktrackUrl=`${TRACKING_DOMAIN}${ADS_TRACKING_URL}/?${t.toString()}`),n}))}get pageOptions(){const e=Object.assign({},this._pageOptions);return Object.keys(this._pageOptions).forEach((t=>{t.startsWith("bodis")&&delete e[t]})),e}get cannotLoadAds(){return!this.ads.loaded}get wantsToServeAds(){return window.location.search.startsWith(ADS_PARAM)}get adsMode(){return this.ads.loaded&&this.wantsToServeAds}get adsReady(){return this.wantsToServeAds&&!this.cannotLoadAds}get noAdsRedirectUrl(){const e=new URLSearchParams(window.location.search);return KNOWN_CAF_PARAMS.forEach((t=>e.delete(t))),`${window.location.origin}?${e.toString()}`}get callbacks(){return this.ads.toCallbacks()}toContext(){return Object.assign({blocks:this.blocks,pageOptions:this.pageOptions},this.ads.toContext())}}class CookieConsentManager{constructor(){this.injectScriptTag=()=>__awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function*(){return new Promise((e=>{const t=document.createElement("script");t.setAttribute("src",COOKIE_CONSENT_JS_URL),t.addEventListener("load",(()=>this.awaitConsent(e))),t.addEventListener("error",(()=>e(!1))),document.head.appendChild(t)}))}))}inject(){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function*(){this.injected||!COOKIE_CONSENT_JS_URL||isLocal()||(this.injected=yield this.injectScriptTag())}))}awaitConsent(e){let t=0;const n=setInterval((()=>{t+=1,20===t&&(clearInterval(n),e(!0)),void 0!==window.__tcfapi&&(window.addEventListener("ConsentActivity",(t=>{const{detail:{status:n}}=t;n&&e(!0)})),clearInterval(n))}),50)}}class App{main(){var e;return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function*(){if(this.parkResponse=decode(),this.findDomainResponse=yield getFindDomain(),!this.findDomainResponse)throw new Error("Domain failed to load.");this.pixels=Pixels.build(this.findDomainResponse),null===(e=this.pixels)||void 0===e||e.listenForEvents(),this.adblock=new Adblock,yield this.adblock.inject(),this.google=Google.build(this.findDomainResponse,this.parkResponse,this.adblock),this.google.injectTagManager();const t=Parking.build(this.findDomainResponse,this.google);Render.prerender(t),this.cookieConsentManager=new CookieConsentManager,yield this.cookieConsentManager.inject();let n=Failed.cannotPark(this.findDomainResponse);if(n)return void(yield this.transitionToFailed(n));yield this.google.injectAds();const i=Disabled.build(this.findDomainResponse,this.adblock.state);if(i)return void(yield this.transitionToDisabled(i));const s=Sales.build(this.findDomainResponse);if(s)return void(yield this.transitionToSales(s));this.eligibleForZeroClick&&(this.zeroClickResponse=yield getZeroClick(this.context));const a=Redirect.build(this.findDomainResponse,this.zeroClickResponse,this.google);a?yield this.transitionToRedirect(a):(n=Failed.noSponsors(this.google),n?yield this.transitionToFailed(n):yield this.transitionToParking(t))}))}transitionToParking(e){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function*(){this.state=e,Render.template(e),Render.revealPage(),yield this.google.waitForBlocks(),yield this.track()}))}transitionToRedirect(e){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function*(){this.state=e;const t=this.track();Render.revealPage(),yield waiter(e.delay,(e=>Render.loading(e))),yield t,window.location.href=e.url,log(`➡ Redirecting [${e.url}]`)}))}transitionToFailed(e){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function*(){this.state=e,Render.message(e.message),Render.revealPage(),yield this.track()}))}transitionToSales(e){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function*(){this.state=e,e.init(this.context),yield this.track()}))}transitionToDisabled(e){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function*(){this.state=e,Render.message(e.message),Render.revealPage(),yield this.track()}))}track(){var e;return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function*(){if(!this.state.track)return Promise.resolve();try{const t=this.state.trackingType;return null===(e=this.pixels)||void 0===e||e.dispatchEvent({type:t}),trackVisit({context:this.context,callbacks:this.google.callbacks},t)}catch(e){return}}))}get eligibleForZeroClick(){const{cannotPark:e,canZeroClick:t,zeroClick:n}=this.findDomainResponse,{cannotLoadAds:i,wantsToServeAds:s}=this.google;return!!t&&(!!e||(!(!i||s)||!!(null==n?void 0:n.reason)))}get context(){var e,t,n,i;const s=this.findDomainResponse,a=this.parkResponse,o=null===(e=this.state)||void 0===e?void 0:e.toContext(),r=null===(t=this.adblock)||void 0===t?void 0:t.toContext(),d=null===(n=this.google)||void 0===n?void 0:n.toContext(),c=browserState(),l=Object.assign(Object.assign({},null===(i=this.findDomainResponse)||void 0===i?void 0:i.zeroClick),this.zeroClickResponse);return Object.assign(Object.assign(Object.assign(Object.assign(Object.assign(Object.assign({app_version:APP_VERSION,zeroClick:l},s),a),r),d),o),c)}init(){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function*(){try{window.__parkour=this,yield this.main()}catch(e){console.error("app",e);const t=Failed.fromError(e);this.state=t,Render.message(t.message),Render.revealPage()}}))}}(new App).init(),exports.App=App}));