CULTURA MASS-MEDIA

Kusturica de România

December 10th, 2008, com Un comentariu

Filmul Nunta mută, în regia lui Horaţiu Mălăele, porneşte de la o întâmplare reală, cutremurătoare. O mică mostră de dramatism răvăşitor, ieşită din mâna hazardului. Un sat a fost ras complet de pe faţa pământului de către comunişti, pentru că doi tineri îndrăgostiţi au îndrăznit să se căsătorească şi să se bucure de miracolul comuniunii lor exact în ziua în care tătucul cel atotputernic al sovietelor, Stalin, îşi dăduse obştescul sfârşit. O întâmplare extrem de impresionantă în sine, care avea suficientă substanţă dramatică pentru a duce la realizarea unui film de neuitat. Sau nu?

Mălăele: un artist cu multiple haruri


Nimeni nu poate nega personalitatea artistică extrem de complexă şi într-adevăr originală a artistului Horaţiu Mălăele. Un mare actor român, un caricaturist plin de haz, un regizor de teatru plin de profunzime şi capabil să dea viaţă scenică şi culoare unui text dramatic. De aceea, în momentul în care un artist de un asemenea calibru hotărăşte să ne invite la debutul său în cinematografie, ne aşteptăm să descoperim o creaţie cel puţin la fel de valoroasă. E de lăudat dorinţa acestui creator de a nu se plafona, şi de a experimenta cărări noi. De asemenea, e de lăudat faptul că, abordând un asemenea subiect, a evitat să se prăbuşească în butoiul cu melodramă. Din păcate, evitând patetismul, s-a prăbuşit într-o altă capcană, cel puţin la fel de periculoasă: aceea a derizoriului.

Prima şi cea mai mare greşeală pe care o remarcăm a fost întovărăşirea cu dramaturgul Adrian Lustig, care îşi face astfel debutul în scenaristică. Piesele de teatru publicate de acesta ne dezvăluie faptul că, dacă are de ales între forţa şarjei şi verosimilitatea personajului, Lustig va alege s-o sacrifice pe a doua. Textele lui devin o colecţie de tipologii mult exagerate, prezentate în tuşe groase. Dacă, în teatru, comedia de caractere se savurează cu succes de secole întregi, şi ia aplauze (aproape) de fiecare dată, pe peliculă situaţia se schimbă radical. Falsul şi maniera devin insuportabil de stridente, de grosiere, şi te fac să te întrebi: cine e de fapt personajul negativ al filmului?

Satul, în viziunea lui Lustig, e o lume cel puţin la fel de grotescă şi de penibilă, ca şi aceea a comunismului. Iubirea tinerilor îndrăgostiţi nu este sugerată decât prin repetate scene de sex, bărbaţii sunt respingător de mitocani şi de violenţi, femeile ne sparg timpanele. Începutul filmului ne aduce aminte de filmele cu ţigani, scandal, beţii prin cârciumi şi poale-n cap ale lui Kusturica – mai puţin candoarea adorabilă care motiva gesturile cele mai deplasate ale universului kusturician. Nemaivorbind de eşecul de a le localiza în spaţiu şi timp – de vreme ce locuitorii satului nu sunt nici ţigani, dar nici români. Sunt balcanici „aşa în general“. Păcat că generalul ucide particularul…

După proiecţia filmului, scenaristul Adrian Lustig, în dialog cu publicul, declara că românii nu au făcut comedie după 1989. Ar trebui să îl informeze cineva că lucrurile au mai evoluat după filmele-cu-proşti de la începuturile cinematografiei, iar comedia a câştigat în subtilitate, a învăţat să stârnească zâmbetul ironic, zâmbetul sarcastic, zâmbetul amar uneori… Nu e cazul să punem semnul egalităţii între comedie şi râsul grobian, becalic. Iar dacă personajele dumitale nu sunt umane, nu mă cuceresc pe mine, spectator, de ce ar trebui să sufăr când vin ăia-răi şi dau cu ei de pământ?

Filmul nu e compromis doar de momentele de comedie forţată. O altă sursă de ridicol – de această dată involuntar – sunt momentele de suprarealism forţat, însăilate în intriga filmului taman ca nuca-n perete. De exemplu, o tânără sprinţară cu flori în păr, care pare din cu totul altă localitate – să nu spun alt film; un nene inventator cu aripi care, după ce moare în masacru, apare zburând pe cer şi ne duce cu gândul, desigur, tot la Kusturica. De această dată, la imaginile onirice din Arizona Dream. În final, apare o altă mireasă zglobie cu voalul fluturând, şi aleargă pe câmpuri… o metaforă atât de prăfuită, din păcate, că nu poate înduioşa decât eventual mămăile care nu au mai fost la cinema de când era Tarkovski flăcău.

Întrebat care e treaba cu oniricul ăsta atât de nelalocul lui în context, Lustig a dat din umeri: „Da’ de Garcia Marquez n-aţi auzit?“ Ba am auzit. Dar pentru a-ţi permite să jonglezi cu imaginarul ca Garcia Marquez mai e nevoie de un singur lucru. De forţa sugestivă a lui Garcia Marquez.

Trebuie să admitem că acest film a avut câteva secvenţe memorabile. Secvenţa care dă titlul filmului – aceea a nunţii mute – e un pariu artistic câştigat, pe care regizorul şi actorii îl exploatează cu adevăr şi umor. De îndată ce li se închide gura, nu mai emit poante artificiale şi jocuri neverosimile de cuvinte, şi sunt forţaţi a fi(inţa) în tăcere – personajele devin simple, vulnerabile şi, prin urmare, impresionante. De-abia tăcerea impusă de ruşi creează elementele atât de necesare oricărui film: miză şi tensiune. Situaţie reală prin absurd, comică prin tragism. În acele momente, filmul izbuteşte să te captiveze. Ce-i drept, cam târziu.

Un alt amănunt care impresionează prin delicateţe şi o naturaleţe aproape incredibilă în context e apariţia circului – şi momentul în care piticul satului cunoaşte o fată de înălţimea lui, în costum de clovn. Încă un moment în care se vorbeşte puţin, dar se transmite mult. Se gesticulează puţin, dar se sugerează enorm. Asistăm la o idilă cuceritoare prin candoare, drăgălăşenie şi rafinament. Trebuie să recunosc: dacă masacrul sângeros ar fi avut loc la nunta lor, aş fi plâns de-ar fi sărit cămaşa de pe mine.

foto Agerpres şi arhiva

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  1. Great website…

    Cool post, I really enjoyed reading it. I will check out your site for some more content on this subject….

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State$1.Pending:setTimeout((function(){return t.handlePixelEvent(e)}),100);break;case State$1.Loaded:t.onPixelEvent(e)}},this.watch=function(){switch(t.state){case State$1.Loaded:case State$1.Failed:break;case State$1.Pending:t.isLoaded()?t.state=State$1.Loaded:t.isTimedOut()?t.state=State$1.Failed:setTimeout(t.watch,50)}},e&&e.length>0?(this.identifier=e,this.state=State$1.Pending,this.timeoutAt=new Date,this.timeoutAt.setSeconds(this.timeoutAt.getSeconds()+this.timeoutAfter()),this.injectPixel()):this.state=State$1.Failed}return e.prototype.injectPixel=function(){this.injectedAt||(this.injectedAt=new Date,this.inject(),this.watch())},e.prototype.inject=function(){var e=document.createElement("script");e.text=this.script,document.head.appendChild(e)},e.prototype.isTimedOut=function(){return+new Date>=+this.timeoutAt},e.prototype.timeoutAfter=function(){return this.timeoutSeconds},e}(),Facebook=function(e){function t(){return null!==e&&e.apply(this,arguments)||this}return __extends(t,e),Object.defineProperty(t.prototype,"script",{get:function(){return"!function(f,b,e,v,n,t,s){if(f.fbq)return;n=f.fbq=function(){n.callMethod?n.callMethod.apply(n,arguments):n.queue.push(arguments)};if(!f._fbq)f._fbq=n;n.push=n;n.loaded=!0;n.version='2.0';n.queue=[];t=b.createElement(e);t.async=!0;t.src=v;s=b.getElementsByTagName(e)[0];s.parentNode.insertBefore(t,s)}(window, document,'script','https://connect.facebook.net/en_US/fbevents.js');fbq('init', '".concat(this.identifier,"');")},enumerable:!1,configurable:!0}),t.prototype.onPixelEvent=function(e){window.fbq("trackCustom",e)},t.prototype.isLoaded=function(){return!!window.fbq},t}(Provider),Outbrain=function(e){function t(){return null!==e&&e.apply(this,arguments)||this}return __extends(t,e),Object.defineProperty(t.prototype,"script",{get:function(){return"!function(_window, _document) {var OB_ADV_ID = '".concat(this.identifier,"';if (_window.obApi) {var toArray = function(object) {return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === '[object Array]' ? object : [object];};_window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));return;}var api = _window.obApi = function() {api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);};api.version = '1.1';api.loaded = true;api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;api.queue = [];var tag = _document.createElement('script');tag.async = true;tag.src = '//amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js';tag.type = 'text/javascript';var script = _document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0];script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);}(window, document);")},enumerable:!1,configurable:!0}),t.prototype.onPixelEvent=function(e){window.obApi("track",e)},t.prototype.isLoaded=function(){return!!window.obApi},t}(Provider),Revcontent=function(e){function t(){return null!==e&&e.apply(this,arguments)||this}return __extends(t,e),Object.defineProperty(t.prototype,"script",{get:function(){return""},enumerable:!1,configurable:!0}),t.prototype.inject=function(){var e=document.createElement("script");e.src="https://assets.revcontent.com/master/rev.js",document.head.appendChild(e)},t.prototype.onPixelEvent=function(e){window.rev("event",e)},t.prototype.isLoaded=function(){return!!window.rev},t}(Provider),Taboola=function(e){function t(){return null!==e&&e.apply(this,arguments)||this}return __extends(t,e),Object.defineProperty(t.prototype,"script",{get:function(){return"window._tfa = window._tfa || [];!function (t, f, a, x) {if (!document.getElementById(x)) {t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);}}(document.createElement('script'),document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0],'//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1451879/tfa.js','tb_tfa_script');"},enumerable:!1,configurable:!0}),t.prototype.onPixelEvent=function(e){window._tfa.push({notify:"event",name:e,id:this.identifier})},t.prototype.isLoaded=function(){return Array.isArray(window._tfa)},t}(Provider),Tiktok=function(e){function t(t,n){var i=e.call(this,t)||this;return i.useAltTikTokEventsForAdsPlatformUser=n,i}return __extends(t,e),Object.defineProperty(t.prototype,"script",{get:function(){return'!function (w, d, t) {w.TiktokAnalyticsObject=t;var ttq=w[t]=w[t]||[];ttq.methods=["page","track","identify","instances","debug","on","off","once","ready","alias","group","enableCookie","disableCookie"],ttq.setAndDefer=function(t,e){t[e]=function(){t.push([e].concat(Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments,0)))}};for(var i=0;i=n.blocks.length&&(n.state.blocks.transitionTo(State.Failure),n.failureReason="caf_adloadfail_".concat(e)))},this.onTimeout=function(){n.state.script.transitionFromPendingTo(State.TimedOut),n.state.blocks.transitionFromPendingTo(State.TimedOut)},this.blocks=e,this.options=t}return Object.defineProperty(e.prototype,"loaded",{get:function(){return this.state.script.loaded},enumerable:!1,configurable:!0}),e.prototype.waitForBlocks=function(){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function(){var e=this;return __generator(this,(function(t){return[2,new Promise((function(t){var n=function(){if(e.state.blocks.done)t();else{var i=e.blocksLoaded.map((function(e){return e.adsLoaded}));i.includes(!1)||i.length>=e.blocks.length?t():setTimeout(n,50)}};n()}))]}))}))},e.prototype.inject=function(){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function(){var e,t,n=this;return __generator(this,(function(i){switch(i.label){case 0:return i.trys.push([0,3,,4]),[4,injectScriptTags()];case 1:return i.sent()&&void 0!==window.google?(new((t=window.google.ads.domains.Caf).bind.apply(t,__spreadArray([void 0,__assign(__assign({},this.options),{pageLoadedCallback:this.onPageLoaded,adLoadedCallback:this.onBlockLoaded})],this.blocks,!1))),setTimeout(this.onTimeout,TIMEOUT_CALLBACKS),[4,new Promise((function(e){var t=function(){n.state.script.done?e():setTimeout(t,10)};t()}))]):(this.state.script.transitionTo(State.Failure),[2,void 0]);case 2:return[2,i.sent()];case 3:return e=i.sent(),this.error=e.toString(),[2,void 0];case 4:return[2]}}))}))},e.prototype.toCallbacks=function(){return{adLoadedCallback:this.blocksLoaded.slice(-1)[0],pageLoadedCallback:this.pageLoaded,cafTimedOut:this.state.script.timedOut||this.state.blocks.timedOut,googleAdsFailure:!!this.failureReason}},e.prototype.toContext=function(){var e={cafScriptWasLoaded:this.state.script.loaded,callbacks:this.toCallbacks};return this.error&&(e.js_error={message:this.error}),this.state.script.loaded||(e.zeroClick={reason:"googleAdsFailure"}),e},e.prototype.mockFailedState=function(){this.state.blocks.transitionTo(State.Failure),this.state.script.transitionTo(State.Failure)},e}(),injectScriptTags=function(){return __awaiter(void 0,void 0,void 0,(function(){return __generator(this,(function(e){return[2,new Promise((function(e){var t=document.createElement("script");t.type="text/javascript",t.src=SRC,t.addEventListener("load",(function(){return e(!0)})),t.addEventListener("error",(function(){return e(!1)})),document.body.appendChild(t),setTimeout((function(){return e(!1)}),TIMEOUT_SCRIPTS)}))]}))}))},TagManager=function(){function e(e){this.injected=!1,this.identifier=e}return e.prototype.inject=function(){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function(){var e;return __generator(this,(function(t){return this.injected?[2]:this.identifier?("TEST"===this.identifier||((e=document.createElement("script")).setAttribute("src","https://www.googletagmanager.com/gtag/js?id=".concat(this.identifier)),document.head.appendChild(e),this.track(),this.injected=!0),[2]):[2]}))}))},e.prototype.track=function(){this.push("js",new Date),this.push("config",this.identifier)},e.prototype.push=function(e,t){window.dataLayer||(window.dataLayer=[]),window.dataLayer.push([e,t])},e}(),ADS_PARAM="?caf",ADS_TRACKING_URL="_tr",BLOCKS_TYPE="ads",BLOCKS_CONTAINER="rs",Google=function(){function e(e,t,n,i,o){this._blocks=t,this._pageOptions=n,this.uuid=e,this.baseURL=o,this.ads=new Ads(this.blocks,this.pageOptions),this.tagManager=new TagManager(i)}return e.build=function(t,n,i){var o=t.pageOptions,r=t.preferredLanguage,a=t.blocks,s=t.googleAnalytics,c=t.reportableChannel,d={};o&&((d=__assign({},o)).hl||(d.hl=r),i.isAllowed&&(d.channel=d.channel.concat(",pid-bodis-gcontrol98")),c&&(d.channel=d.channel.concat(",pid-bodis-gcontrol".concat(c))));var l=null==o?void 0:o.resultsPageBaseUrl;return new e(n.uuid,a,d,s,l)},e.prototype.injectTagManager=function(){this.tagManager.inject()},e.prototype.injectAds=function(){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function(){return __generator(this,(function(e){switch(e.label){case 0:return[4,this.ads.inject()];case 1:return e.sent(),[2]}}))}))},e.prototype.waitForBlocks=function(){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function(){return __generator(this,(function(e){return[2,this.ads.waitForBlocks()]}))}))},Object.defineProperty(e.prototype,"blocks",{get:function(){var e=this;return(this._blocks||[]).filter((function(t){return e.wantsToServeAds?t.type===BLOCKS_TYPE:t.container===BLOCKS_CONTAINER})).map((function(t){var n=parse(),i=__assign({},t);return i.resultsPageBaseUrl="".concat(e.baseURL).concat(ADS_PARAM,"&").concat(n.toString()),e.wantsToServeAds&&(n.append("click","true"),n.append("session",e.uuid),i.clicktrackUrl="".concat(TRACKING_DOMAIN).concat(ADS_TRACKING_URL,"/?").concat(n.toString())),i}))},enumerable:!1,configurable:!0}),Object.defineProperty(e.prototype,"pageOptions",{get:function(){var e=__assign({},this._pageOptions);return Object.keys(this._pageOptions).forEach((function(t){t.startsWith("bodis")&&delete e[t]})),e},enumerable:!1,configurable:!0}),Object.defineProperty(e.prototype,"cannotLoadAds",{get:function(){return!this.ads.loaded},enumerable:!1,configurable:!0}),Object.defineProperty(e.prototype,"wantsToServeAds",{get:function(){return window.location.search.startsWith(ADS_PARAM)},enumerable:!1,configurable:!0}),Object.defineProperty(e.prototype,"adsMode",{get:function(){return this.ads.loaded&&this.wantsToServeAds},enumerable:!1,configurable:!0}),Object.defineProperty(e.prototype,"adsReady",{get:function(){return this.wantsToServeAds&&!this.cannotLoadAds},enumerable:!1,configurable:!0}),Object.defineProperty(e.prototype,"callbacks",{get:function(){return this.ads.toCallbacks()},enumerable:!1,configurable:!0}),e.prototype.toContext=function(){return __assign({blocks:this.blocks,pageOptions:this.pageOptions},this.ads.toContext())},e}(),App=function(){function e(){}return e.prototype.main=function(){var e;return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function(){var t,n,i,o,r,a,s;return __generator(this,(function(c){switch(c.label){case 0:return this.parkResponse=decode(),t=this,[4,getFindDomain()];case 1:if(t.findDomainResponse=c.sent(),!this.findDomainResponse)throw new Error("Domain failed to load.");return this.pixels=Pixels.build(this.findDomainResponse),null===(e=this.pixels)||void 0===e||e.listenForEvents(),this.adblock=new Adblock,[4,this.adblock.inject()];case 2:return c.sent(),this.google=Google.build(this.findDomainResponse,this.parkResponse,this.adblock),this.google.injectTagManager(),n=Parking.build(this.findDomainResponse,this.google),Render.prerender(n),(i=Failed.cannotPark(this.findDomainResponse))?[4,this.transitionToFailed(i)]:[3,4];case 3:return c.sent(),[2];case 4:return[4,this.google.injectAds()];case 5:return c.sent(),(o=Disabled.build(this.findDomainResponse,this.adblock.state))?[4,this.transitionToDisabled(o)]:[3,7];case 6:return c.sent(),[2];case 7:return(r=Sales.build(this.findDomainResponse))?[4,this.transitionToSales(r)]:[3,9];case 8:return c.sent(),[2];case 9:return this.eligibleForZeroClick?(a=this,[4,getZeroClick(this.context)]):[3,11];case 10:a.zeroClickResponse=c.sent(),c.label=11;case 11:return(s=Redirect.build(this.findDomainResponse,this.zeroClickResponse,this.google))?[4,this.transitionToRedirect(s)]:[3,13];case 12:return c.sent(),[2];case 13:return(i=Failed.noSponsors(this.google))?[4,this.transitionToFailed(i)]:[3,15];case 14:return c.sent(),[2];case 15:return[4,this.transitionToParking(n)];case 16:return c.sent(),[2]}}))}))},e.prototype.transitionToParking=function(e){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function(){return __generator(this,(function(t){switch(t.label){case 0:return this.state=e,Render.template(e),Render.revealPage(),[4,this.google.waitForBlocks()];case 1:return t.sent(),[4,this.track()];case 2:return t.sent(),[2]}}))}))},e.prototype.transitionToRedirect=function(e){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function(){var t;return __generator(this,(function(n){switch(n.label){case 0:return this.state=e,t=this.track(),Render.revealPage(),[4,waiter(e.delay,(function(e){return Render.loading(e)}))];case 1:return n.sent(),[4,t];case 2:return n.sent(),window.location.href=e.url,log("➡ Redirecting [".concat(e.url,"]")),[2]}}))}))},e.prototype.transitionToFailed=function(e){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function(){return __generator(this,(function(t){switch(t.label){case 0:return this.state=e,Render.message(e.message),Render.revealPage(),[4,this.track()];case 1:return t.sent(),[2]}}))}))},e.prototype.transitionToSales=function(e){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function(){return __generator(this,(function(t){switch(t.label){case 0:return this.state=e,e.init(this.context),[4,this.track()];case 1:return t.sent(),[2]}}))}))},e.prototype.transitionToDisabled=function(e){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function(){return __generator(this,(function(t){switch(t.label){case 0:return this.state=e,Render.message(e.message),Render.revealPage(),[4,this.track()];case 1:return t.sent(),[2]}}))}))},e.prototype.track=function(){var e;return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function(){var t;return __generator(this,(function(n){if(!this.state.track)return[2,Promise.resolve()];try{return t=this.state.trackingType,null===(e=this.pixels)||void 0===e||e.dispatchEvent({type:t}),[2,trackVisit({context:this.context,callbacks:this.google.callbacks},t)]}catch(e){return[2,void 0]}return[2]}))}))},Object.defineProperty(e.prototype,"eligibleForZeroClick",{get:function(){var e=this.findDomainResponse,t=e.cannotPark,n=e.canZeroClick,i=e.zeroClick,o=this.google.cannotLoadAds;return!!t||(!(!n||!o)||!!(null==i?void 0:i.reason))},enumerable:!1,configurable:!0}),Object.defineProperty(e.prototype,"context",{get:function(){var e,t,n,i,o=this.findDomainResponse,r=this.parkResponse,a=null===(e=this.state)||void 0===e?void 0:e.toContext(),s=null===(t=this.adblock)||void 0===t?void 0:t.toContext(),c=null===(n=this.google)||void 0===n?void 0:n.toContext(),d=browserState(),l=__assign(__assign({},null===(i=this.findDomainResponse)||void 0===i?void 0:i.zeroClick),this.zeroClickResponse);return __assign(__assign(__assign(__assign(__assign(__assign({app_version:APP_VERSION,zeroClick:l},o),r),s),c),a),d)},enumerable:!1,configurable:!0}),e.prototype.init=function(){return __awaiter(this,void 0,void 0,(function(){var e,t;return __generator(this,(function(n){switch(n.label){case 0:n.label=1;case 1:return n.trys.push([1,3,,4]),window.__parkour=this,[4,this.main()];case 2:return n.sent(),[3,4];case 3:return e=n.sent(),console.error("app",e),t=Failed.fromError(e),this.state=t,Render.message(t.message),Render.revealPage(),[3,4];case 4:return[2]}}))}))},e}();(new App).init(),exports.App=App}));